July 25, 2024

The Silent Crisis: U.S. Debt Projections and Market Implications

Bond investors are increasingly wary as federal budget deficits are projected to remain high in the coming years, regardless of the 2024 presidential election’s outcome. Despite efforts by both President Joe Biden and his main challenger, former President Donald Trump, to reduce deficits during their respective administrations, the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office (CBO) forecasts a rise in the deficit from approximately $1.6 trillion in 2024 to $2.6 trillion by 2034.

Analysts and investors anticipate sustained historically high deficits, prompting some to protect their portfolios against a surge in bond yields. Concerns are growing over the future debt issuance required to finance deficit spending without destabilizing the $27 trillion Treasury market. However, a debt crisis is not imminent.

JPMorgan analysts, in a recent note, described the U.S. national debt as “the most predictable crisis in history,” suggesting it is currently more of a “silent crisis” than an immediate threat. They emphasized that the national debt is a problem for the future, not the present. The likelihood of a sudden drop in demand for U.S. government bonds remains low, largely due to the dollar’s status as the world’s leading reserve currency and the substantial size and depth of the Treasury market.

Nonetheless, shifts in demand for U.S. bonds are evident, with foreign ownership not keeping pace with market growth and the Federal Reserve reducing its bond holdings. Ongoing uncertainty about the number and extent of the Fed’s interest rate cuts, which are on hold due to persistent inflation, has led investors to reassess the government bond market.

David Rogal, managing director and member of the multi-sector team in BlackRock’s global fixed income group, highlighted the importance of both supply and demand in the current environment. He noted that a reduced buyer base combined with increased supply suggests a likely increase in term premiums over time. This term premium represents the additional compensation investors demand for holding longer-term government bonds.

Craig Ellinger, head of Americas fixed income at UBS Asset Management, recommended short-term debt as a safer option if deficits become unmanageable. Ella Hoxha, head of fixed income at Newton Investment Management, echoed this sentiment, favoring short-term maturities in the Treasury market. She pointed out that benchmark 10-year Treasury yields, currently around 4.4%, could rise to 8% or 10% over the next several years, as the current low rates are unsustainable given U.S. debt levels.

The federal government’s gross national debt has surpassed $34.5 trillion, with debt held by the public, a key metric for economists, at $21 trillion. The CBO projects this figure to rise to $48 trillion by 2034. The high-interest rate environment has exacerbated the deficit, with federal interest payments on the debt now exceeding military and Medicare spending.

Key Takeaways:

  • U.S. budget deficits are projected to increase from $1.6 trillion in 2024 to $2.6 trillion by 2034, according to the CBO.
  • Analysts and investors expect deficits to remain high, prompting portfolio adjustments to mitigate risks associated with rising bond yields.
  • A debt crisis is not imminent due to the dollar’s reserve currency status and the robust Treasury market.
  • Shifts in bond demand are noted, with foreign ownership lagging and the Federal Reserve reducing its holdings.
  • Experts recommend short-term debt as a safer investment amid potential deficit growth.
  • Interest rates on benchmark 10-year Treasuries could rise significantly over the next several years.


The U.S. federal budget deficits are set to grow, raising concerns among bond investors about future debt issuance and market stability. While immediate risks are mitigated by the dollar’s status and the depth of the Treasury market, shifts in demand and high-interest rates necessitate cautious portfolio strategies. Experts suggest focusing on short-term debt to navigate the uncertainties ahead, as the sustainability of low interest rates remains in question given the projected national debt growth.


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